|Age:||Late Jurassic |
|Locality:||Morrison Formation, Utah|
Allosaurus was the killing-machine from the Late Jurassic.
Allosaurus is probably one of the best known dinosaurs to science. Several specimens were recovered in the United States and Portugal.
Allosaurus fragilis means “strange fragile lizard”
CLASSIFICATION: Theropoda: Allosauridae.
AGE: Late Jurassic: Kimmeridgian-Tithonian 154.7 - 150 Ma.
LENGTH: 10 - ?14 m (33 - 46 ft).
WEIGHT: 1 - 1.7 tonnes.
LOCATION: North America (Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming,
USA), Africa (Tanzania), Europe (Portugal), ? Australia (Victoria).
Considered by many to be the natural enemy of Apatosaurus, and probably also
Diplodocus, Camarasaurus, stegosaurs and camptosaurs. Allosaurus had 2 bony bumps above and ahead of eyes, 2 smaller ones behind them and a low, narrow, bony ridge from eyes to snout. Its skull was deep, and the jaws contained an impressive array of flattened, serrated teeth. The forelimbs were muscular and ended in 3 fingered hands with powerful grasping claws, while the hindlimbs were massive but capable of rapid movement.
An astragalus from Australia was initially referred to A. fragilis, but has since been re-examined and
classified as an unidentified allosaurid, although not everyone accepts this downgrading.
Allosaurus was the star of the BBC documentary “The Balad of Big Al”
SPECIES Type: A. fragilis.
Other: A. maximus, ? A. amplexus, ? A. atrox, ? A. ferox, ? A. tendagurensis.
SPECIES LIST OF THE GENUS:
Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877 (type species), valid.
Senior synonym of Allos. atrox and Allos. lucaris, Creosaurus atrox, Labrosaurus ferox
(provisionally), L. fragilis, L. lucaris, Antrodemus fragilis, Antro. lucaris, Antro. atrox, Antro.
trihedrodon, Camptonotus amplus, Camptosaurus amplus, Laelaps trihedrodon, possibly Dryptosaurus
trihedrodon, Hypsirophus trihedrodon and Apatodon mirus.
This cast is a replica of Allosaurus fragilis skull.
Many papers were published about this species. At sale, we may provide any of these publications (just request it):
GILMORE, C.W. (1920). Osteology of the Carnivorous dinosauria in the United States National Museum, with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. United States National Museum. 110, pp: 1-159.
MADSEN, J.H. Jr. (1976). Allosaurus fragilis: a revised osteology. Utah Geol. Mining Surv. Bull., 1091: 1-163.
MARSH, O.C. (1877). Notice of new dinosaurian reptiles from the Jurassic formation. Am. J. Sci. 3 (14).
MOLNAR, R.E., FLANNERY, T.F. & RICH, T.H.V. (1985). Aussie Allosaurus after all. Journal of Paleontology. 59 (6): 1511-1513.
RAYFIELD, E.J. (2001). Functional morphology of the skull of Allosaurus fragilis: A study using the finite element method, Journal of Morphology, volume 6 248(3) 274.
SMITH, D.K. (1996). A discriminant analysis of Allosaurus populations using Quarries as the Operational Units. Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin, 60: 69-72.
SMITH, D.K. (1998). A morphometric analysis of Allosaurus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18 (1): 126-142.
HUBERT, J.F. & CHURE, D.J. (1992). Taphonomy of an Allosaurus quarry in the deposits of a Late Jurassic braided river with a gravel-sand bedload, Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation, Dinosaur National Monument, Utah. In Wilson, J.R. (ed.) Field Guide to Geologic Excursions in Utah and Adjacent Areas of Nevada, Idaho, and Wyoming. Utah Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Publication. 92-3: 375-381.
ERICKSON, G.M. (2001). The bite of Allosaurus. Nature.
CHURE, D.J. & MADSEN, J.H. Jr. (1996). Variation in aspects of the tympanic pneumatic system in a population of Allosaurus fragilis from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 16 (1): 63-66, 573-577.
CHURE, D.J. (2000e). Observations on the Morphology and Pathology of the Gastral Basket of Allosaurus, based on a new specimen from Dinosaur National Monument. Oryctos. Vol. 3: 29-37.
CHURE, D. (2000). A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (UT-CO) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae, PhD Thesis, Part 1, page 166.
CHURE, D.J. (1999). The wrist of Allosaurus and the evolution of the semilunate carpal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19 (Suppl. to no. 3): 38A.
CHURE, D.J. (2000a). On the orbit of theropod dinosaurs. Gaia. Lisboa.15: 233-240. [dated as 1998 but only published in 2000]
CHURE, D.J. (1998). A Reassessment of the Australian Allosaurus and its implications for the Australian refugium concept. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18 (suppl. to 3): 34A.
Bakker, R.T. (2000). Brontosaur killers: Late Jurassic allosaurids as sabre-tooth cat analogues. Gaia 145-158. [dated as 1998 but only published in 2000]
Chure, D. (2000). Utah’s first Allosaurus – Marsh’s “megalosaurus” specimen rediscovered. Brigham Young University, Geology Studies 45; 1 - 4 (2000).
Rayfield, E., Norman, D., Horner, C., Horner, J., Smith, P., Thomason, J. and Upchurch, P. (2001). Cranial design and function in a large theropod dinosaur. Nature 409: 1033 - 1037 (2001).
Hanna, R. (2002). Multiple injury and infection in a sub-adult theropod dinosaur Allosaurus fragilis with comparisons to allosaur pathology in the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry collection. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22 (1); 76 - 90 (2002).
Antunes, M. and Mateus, O. (2003). Dinosaurs of Portugal. Comptes Rendus Palevol 2; 77 - 95 (2003)
See also Allosaurus complete #60,
Allosaurus skeleton #181.